剧集 | 宇宙（2007） | 导航列表
The sun is the superpower of our solar system,
a thermonuclear blast furnace, erupting with massive explosions.
It can be the same amount of mass of mont Everest
coming out from the Sun and flying out into the space.
At 93 million miles away it would seem that we are safe from the sun's wrath.
But are we?
It matters, especially in modern times,
what the sun is doing.
From the center of the sun, as it rotates around,
as the kill zone.
With some experts predicting the most violent outbreak of solar activity
in modern history.
it抯 never been more important to understand
the secrets of the sun.
The Universe episode 1x01 - Secrets of The Sun
Traduzione e Synch: Supersimo, Cochrane, Hipopo, Kickaha, Zio Campori
There are bilions of stars in the universe
but one alone dominates our cosmic neighborhood:
It's an infernal sphere, of mostly hydrogen and helium,
superheated into a plasma, that burns at millions of degrees.
Its surface reages with violent explosions,
as expelled outstorm of deadly radiation, milions of miles into space.
Our Sun is a type of star, known as a yellow dwarf.
Yellow because of the color of its surface.
And dwarf because it's small for a star.
But small it's relative.
Within its boundaries, you can fit one milion earths.
In our solar system, there's simply no bigger star than the Sun.
At a milion miles across, it's a massive celestial blockbuster.
The Sun is really pretty huge.
It dominates our solar system.
Not only is the bigger star of the Solar system,
it's the only star of the solar system.
It's sorrounded by a bunch a smaller stuff,
that we called planets, comets and moons.
But the Sun is our star.
Our star is an enormous source of heat and energy.
It has a surface temperature of 10.000?Farenheit.
An generates 380 billion billion megawatts of power.
This dwarfs anything on a human scale.
Hoover Dam in Nevada only generates 280 megawatts.
In one second the sun churns out more energy
than has been used in all of human civilization.
All that power in the blink of an eye.
Incredibly, it's been burning this way for billions of years.
Early astronomers didn't quite understand how
the Sun could generate so much energy for that long period of time.
Though the first mystery was really how the sun generate this energy.
In the early nineteenth century,
scientists assumed that the Sun work just like any fire on Earth,
that there was a source of fuel, perhaps coal, that was slowly burning away.
But that was a serious problem with this theory:
I've got a fire in front of me here,
if I wanna as keep burning, I had to keep adding woods to it.
This fire last maybe an hour, must to add some more woods.
Now, if I had a pile of the woods the size of the all Sun,
and somehow enough oxygen to burn it,
it would only take about 5000 or 6000 years to burn out.
That's a long time, but it's not long enough to substain life on Earth.
By the early twentieth century,
carbon dating of earth rocks and fossils have proved it,
that the Sun was in existence at a temperature warm enough to substain life
not for thousand of years, but for 3 billions.
If you want to build a fire that would last that long,
you'd need 72 trillions cords of firewood.
That's 12 thousand cords for each man, woman and child on the planet.
Clearly, there had to be some other process,
unknow on Earth, that would powering the Sun.
In the 1920's scientists found the answer to the puzzle,
in a process that would later be harnessed to fuel the hydrogen bomb.
Fusion occurs when atoms are smashed together in a high rate of speed
and literally fused. To get this to happen,
conditions have to be just right.
For any interaction that happens there's two proton, each has
a positive electric charge and so they would repell each other.
So you got to get them close enough together,
and to do that, it's got to be hot, which means
the part is moving fast, and dense enough that they hit each other
and they can get close enough together and actually fused.
The core of the Sun is the perfect coaler for nuclear fusion.
It's the hottest place in the solar system, as it sweltering 27 milion?F.
And it's also incredibly dense.
It's so dense, it's ten times the density of lead,
and you would think that high density should be a solid, but it's not
because it's so hot that it remains a plasma.
If you heat a gas to high enough temperatures,
electrons fall off the atoms and float around in the soup.
And so it has a behavior that's different from what a gas would do,
that we have a different word for it, called plasma.
To truly understand what goes on in the core of the Sun,
you have to find someway to imagine the almost "unimaginable".
In addition to study the Sun, I also play pool
and the Sun is a place where there are billion of particles,
colliding, interacting with each other.
And it is really not unlike a cosmic pool table, on an unimaginable scale.
It doesn't matter how hard you hit a ball.
You would never hit hard enough to actually
fuse that ball together with another ball.
But there's so much pressure and such high density in the core of the Sun,
that two objects impacting each other, will actually fused.
In the Sun, these objects are hydrogen atoms,
flowned together by immense pressure, to form helium atoms.
In this fusion process, the resulting atom is slightly less massive
than the ones they created it.
The missing mass is given off as energy.
Each second, inside the Sun, 600 million tons of hydrogen are fused
into 595 million tons of helium.
That five million tons of mass lost in the process is converted into energy
equal to one billion one megaton hydrogen bombs.
That's every second.
When you look out into the cosmos
the process that gives you the highest return of energy
for free, is what goes on in the center of a star like the Sun.
So, we now know that the Sun is powered by nuclear fusion.
It's the only fuel we know,
that can substain the burning in the Sun long enough
to substain life on Earth, billions of years.
it's so central to life that we don't often give it a second taught.
But how light gets from there, to here turns out to be an incredible story.
The energy created in the fusion process is carried out of the core
by particles of light and heat called photons.
They are what bring the warming race of the Sun to Earth.
To reach our planet, these glowing travelers from our nearest star
must first take a long whining road to all the layers of the Sun,
like Dante's journey to the levels of Hell.
First, a foton entries the 185.000 miles take radiating zone,
the region is so densily pathed
剧集 | 宇宙（2007） | 导航列表
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